The fez cap originated in the Moroccan city of the same name. Its distinctive red color came from a dye made from crimson berries. Initially a symbol of Ottoman modernity, the fez over time came to be seen as part of an "Oriental" cultural identity. Seen as exotic and romantic in the west, it enjoyed a vogue as part of men's luxury smoking outfit in the United States and the United Kingdom in the decades surrounding the turn of the 20th century. Many fraternal societies adopted the fez as their official headgear. In the Laurel and Hardy film Sons of the Desert members of the fictional organization of the same name wear the fez, and consequently so do those of the Laurel and Hardy International Appreciation Society, which is itself named after and modeled on the one seen in the film. The caracal cat is also a native of northern Africa, and the fez seems a natural stylistic addition to his wardrobe.